The paper focuses on two most important historiographic works of Petrus Petreius, a Swedish delegate in the Grand Duchy of Moscow during the Time of Troubles at the beginning of the 17th century: Fair and True Relation… (1608) and Regni Muschowitici sciographia (1614–1615). Some researchers consider Petreius as being the first Normanist and claim he connected the theory of the Scandinavian origin of Varangians with official Swedish foreign policy. Analysis of Petreius’ texts shows that his works were directed especially against Polish Catholics and the Polish king Sigismund III Vasa, who was the prime rival of the Swedish king at that time. The first of the analysed texts Fair and True Relation… deals with this matter by describing Russia and its inhabitants as an unfortunate neighbour in danger and in need of help. Nevertheless, it doesn’t mention Varangians or anything from early Russian history at all. On the other hand, in two places within the voluminous Regni Muschowitici sciographia, he describes several theories about the origin of Varangians, yet most of them have proved not to be original but copied from other sources, of which Petreius’ largest work have been compiled (mostly from Rerum Moscoviticarum Commentarii by Siegmund von Herberstein). Petreius can possibly be considered a Normanist, but not very decided one and definitely not the first one. His main contribution today seems being mainly educational, as he was the first to promote the propagation of Russian language and culture in Sweden.